Area 1. Printable electronics for energy
The research activity in the field of printable electronics for energy has received an important recognition from the Lazio Region, which has decided to support, starting from 2006, the potential of the various innovative photovoltaic technologies, especially dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells (DSC) and organic semiconductor-based (OPV) solar cells establishing the Polo Solare Organico of the Lazio Region (CHOSE, Center for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy, www.chose.it), of which Reale is one of the co-founders. Reale served as Director of CHOSE for 2 years, from November 2019 to October 2021, personally taking care of relations with the administration for important developments of the laboratory and management during the pandemic emergency.
The main goal is the design, manufacture and characterization of cells, modules and large area panels in DSC and OPV technology. Reale was a member of the Scientific Technical Committee of the DYEPOWER Consortium established in 2009 by the Universities of Rome Tor Vergata, Ferrara, Turin, and by the companies ERG and Permasteelisa, for the industrialization and architectural integration of DSC on glass in buildings (BIPV). Within the consortium, Reale coordinated the research line for the development of the large area panel starting from elementary modules of A4 format and the development of the management electronics, for all the years of DYEPOWER activity, from 2009 to 2016. .
Reale also studies other photovoltaic systems based on organic semiconductors, such as small molecules and polymers, based on the concept of distributed heterojunction (donor / acceptor systems in solution). In particular, on polymeric solar cells, Dr. Reale coordinated the local unit of the Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata of a PRIN 2007 project "MANUFACTURING, MEASUREMENTS, DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC POLYMERIC, MOLECULAR AND SUPRAMOLECULAR PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS BASED ON BULK HETEROJUNCTIONS", taking care of the construction of solar cells with prototype materials developed within the project. In this project, the world record for OPV solar cells deposited by airbrushing was achieved, as well as one of the first semi-transparent flexible modules made entirely by spray.
Within this line of research, Reale is responsible for several projects in the AGROVOLTAIC technology sector, which consists in the integration of PV technologies on greenhouses. In these projects, different technologies are studied (DSC on glass, semi-transparent OPV, also on flexible substrates) also from the point of view of the spectral competition between cultivation needs and energy production. Reale coordinated different projects (ECOFLECS, COPPER, Aquaponic Easy Farm 4.0) globally or as head of units of the University of Rome Tor Vergata.
Reale also follows a line of research for organic semiconductors for telecommunications (IR emitters, modulators, photodetectors), which was funded by an INFN project.
Since 2012 Reale has also been following a research line dedicated to materials for thermoelectric applications (TE). Reale coordinated the WP relating to thermoelectric devices of the ASI PEROVSKY project, which led to the creation of a prototype of a flexible thermoelectric module based on nanostructured composite materials. Reale coordinated the PhD thesis PRINTABLE THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS FOR ENERGY HARVESTING, by dr S. Mardi.
Area 2. Nanostructured materials (carbon nanotubes):
Experimental study of technological applications (thermal management, deformation sensors, gas sensors) of nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes). This research area has particular relevance as regards research applied to space and sensors.
The nanotechnology activity on nanostructures is aimed at studying the integration of this type of materials as "smartsensors" in tanks, pipelines, smart fabrics, also studying ordering strategies of the various nano aggregates, mainly carbon nanotubes (CNT). Reale also studied the thermal properties of CNTs for application in Thermal Management for power devices.
This activity was also the subject of a 2004 PRIN "SYNTHESIS and PREPARATION TECHNIQUES, FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATIONS AND INNOVATIVE APPLICATIONS OF CARBON-BASED NANOSTRUCTURES AND NANOCOMPOSITES" where Dr. Reale coordinated the local unit of the Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata.
Dr. Reale has also participated in various national (industrial and ASI) and international (industrial and ESA) research programs for space aimed at the development of sensors and the study of materials and components for the management of dissipation. thermal in power devices.
Area 3. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the optical, electro-optical and electrical properties of heterostructure devices for electronics and telecommunications
This activity is focused on the characterization of optoelectronic materials and devices. Reale contributed to the development of the external quantum efficiency measurement system - EQE marketed by the university spin-off DYERS of which Dr. Reale was a founding member.
Reale has developed spectroscopic methodologies for the analysis of thermal dissipation (Thermal Management) based on the characterization of spatially resolved photocurrent and Raman spectra (1D and 2D maps) with micrometric resolution. These spectroscopic techniques have been applied to the thermal analysis of high-power and high-frequency devices, in particular single HEMTs and single and multi-stage HPA on MMIC in InP, GaAs, and GaN technology. From the photocurrent spectra it is in fact possible to determine the internal temperature of the channel, and the thermal resistance of the device package. This research topic has led to the development of numerous contacts with national and European academic and industrial partners, such as Elettronica, Selex-SI, Selex-Galileo, Thales, Qinetiq and others, within the framework of the European projects KORRIGAN and Lifepulse focused on the reliability of HPA in GaAs and GaN technology for radar systems. The thermal dissipation analysis technique has been also improved in order to analyze time-resolved temperature profiles, in pulsed regime. These techniques have also been applied to the analysis of solar cells and PV modules.
The piezoresistive effect in GaN was characterized for the construction of sensors, for the research project "Technologies and devices based on nitrides for space applications" of the Italian Space Agency.
Reale also studies the optical properties of semiconductors from a theoretical point of view. In particular, photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) models have been developed for GaN, to investigate the role of the internal polarization of nitrides and its effect on the optical properties of nitride-based QW devices. Reale was the holder of a research contract at the University Clermont-Ferrand II "Blaise Pascal", France, for the research activity "Theoretical study of gallium nitride based heterostructures" in within the European project HPRN-CT-1999-00132, and was the holder of a "Marie Curie" grant from the European Community, contract HPMT-CT-2000-00191
From a theoretical and experimental point of view, active and passive components for TLC (optical semiconductor amplifiers (SOA), electro-absorption modulators) based on InGaAsP alloys were also studied, considering the linear and non-linear optical properties of the devices. Nonlinear effects in SOAs have been studied both theoretically (gain compression study (XGM) by comparison with pump-probe measurements, 4-wave mixing effects analysis (FWM), wavelength conversion applications ) and experimentally (wavelength conversion by XGM and FWM, 2R and 3R systems for pulse reshaping and synchronism recovery in very high bit rate optical systems, based on mode locking in SOAs)
Organic and hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells
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Nanocomposites for sensor applications (gas sensors and strain sensors)
Carbon naotubes (mats, mebranes or CNT-polimer nanocomposites) can be used to detect strain by means of piezoresistivity behaviour of these materials.
Carbon nanotubes have extremely high effective area (surface area per unit surface). This makes such materials very suitable for gas sensing, due to the high interaction surface between CNT and gas molecules. Moreover, the sensor can be optimized to accelerate the sensor response time (gas detection) and reset time (gas desorption). Compared to standard gas sensor devices based on electrical conductance modification, a three electrode configuration can be used, where a control electrode (acting as a gate) induces an electrostatical control of the molecules-cnt interaction detected as resistance change between the standard electrodes (acting as source and drain). The figure below shows the almost immediate resistance change (a) induced by exposure to ammonia gas (b) under the effect of a control signal (c) accelerating the absorption and the desorption of the gas.
Photoluminescence and Cathodoluminescence in heterostructure devices based on GaN compounds for laser application
Photoluminescence and Cathodoluminescence are spectroscopical tools that allow a detailed investigation of heterostructures. In GaN based nanostructures these techniques can be used to study the effect of the internal polarization fields induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization. In the figure below, the stronger is the excitation (beam currrent in CL experiment, optical intensity in PL experiment), the stronger is the screening of the internal fields.
As a result, the induced optical transitions reveal a blue shift due to the flattening of the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) profile.
The real profile of the bands must be evaluated by means of self consistent simulation coupling the calculation of the quantized states with Schroedinger equation to the solution of the Poisson equation for the determination of the internal fields. Once that the correct transition energies are known, optical transitions and recombination rates can be calculated. A rate equation model can be usd to study PL and CL experiments.
2D Thermal resistance evaluation in high power RF transistors
Photoconductance is a powerful method to evaluate the thermal resistance of electronic devices. The absorption spectrum is correlated to temperature, and a calibration law is extracted. During normal device operation, the effect of self heating is monitored measuring the shift of the absorption spectra. Tha calibration procedure allows to transform spectral shift to temperature variations.
A detailed map of temperature distribution can be obtained through fiber optic scan of the device layout, as shown below.
A temperature map is shown below: possible disuniformities of temperature between source and drain can be detected with micrometric resolution.
Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers: Linear and non linear optical properties}
Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) are versatile devices that can be used in many different context for optical signal processing.
SOA can be operated to perform linear signal processing such as simple low cost optical amplification, in specific contexts such as low power signal preamplification where the possible non linearities that may occur in the SOA are prevented.
When the operating conditions exploit the non linear behaviour of SOA devices, exceptional functionalities can be achieved, such as non linear optical signal processing. There is a number of examples where non linear effects in SOAs have been used to reshape waveforms, to extract retiming signals, to perform wavelength conversion for wavelength multiplexed systems (WDM), to compensate fiber optic dispersion, etc...
The non linear effects that can be induced in SOA have different origin.
First, optical signal can induce themselves a strong modulation of the gain of the active semiconductor waveguide. In this way, a control signal can modify the propagation of other optical input. This is ued for example in Cross Gain Modulation (XGM) for wavelength conversion, as shown below.
The output signal (after filtration at 1535 nm) presents intensity fluctuations given by the gain compression mechanism induced by the pump pulses (at 1550 nm). Even if the logical content is negated, the wavelength converted signal can be used in the remaining section of the optical link without loss of information at bit rates up to 10 Gb/s.
Another important example where gain compression is exploited is all optical 3R regeneration (Reamplification, Reshaping and Retiming of optical signals).
An optical loop can be used to generate clock components in random digital data, and after signal reshaping with XGM stage, an ideal optical clock signal can be extracted, even from NRZ digital signal format where clock extration is known to be very difficult (no clock components in the RF electrical spectrum).
The image below show the optical loop.
The image below show the XGM stage.
The image below show the input random NRZ sequence (left), the clock extracted from the loop (center) and the reshaped clock waveform after XGM stage (rigth).
Another important kind of non linearity that can be induced in SOAs is related to Kerr effect, where electromagnetic susceptibility becomes dependent on the incoming optical fields. Four Wave Mixing (FWM) can occurr, and complex intensity and phase interaction between optical signals can occurr, in a similar way to what happens in non linear efffects in optical fibers. SOA have the interesting feature that non linearities are so strong that th interaction occurr in few hundreths of microns rather than km of optical fibers.
FWM interaction can be used in different manners, such as sampling, logical AND operation and wavength conversion.
An example of a sampling sheme is shown below. This is tipycal of format conversion schemes (for example, NRZ to RZ in OTDM systems).
An NRZ signal is converted to RZ format by means of FWM interaction wit a train of optical pulses.
An example of NRZ to RZ format conversion is given below.
Prof. Andrea Reale is Associate Professor at the Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata since 2014. In 2018 qualified for Full Professorship in Electronics. Formerly from 2004 to 2014 was Assistant Professor at the same University. Prof. Andrea Reale graduated cum laude in Electronic Engineering in 1997 and received his PhD in Telecommunications Engineering and Microelectronics in 2001.
The research can be classified into 3 main areas:
- Devices based on organic semiconductors and hybrids organic-inorganic systems, with particular attention to the technological aspects of scale-up on large area of printable photovoltaic devices, thermoelectric devices and to devices for telecommunications (semitransparent OPV for greenhouse applications, visible photodetectors for VLC applications, composites for printable thermoelectrics);
- Experimental study of nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes and related technological applications (thermal management, strain sensors, gas sensors);
- Theoretical and experimental analysis of the optical, electro-optical and electrical properties of heterostructure devices for electronics and telecommunications. Photoconductance and Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of self-heating phenomena in HEMT and HPA based on GaN and GaAs technology. All optical processing of optical signals for 1R, 2R and 3R functions in optical networks
Prof. A. Reale has co-authored 125 publications in international journals with peer review, several tens of published proceedings of international conferences, 1 textbook in Optoelectronics, 3 chapters in books reviews on photovoltaics, 7 international PCT patents (including 1 acquired by Selex SI, and 6 acquired by the consortium Dyepower). Reale is referee for several international journals (Elsevier, IEEE, OSA, Wiley, etc.) as Sensors and Actuators B, and IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Optical Communications, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Optic Express, Organic Electronics, Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Electrochimica Acta, Journal of Computational Electronics, Journal of Nanophotonics, IEEE Journal of Optical Communications and Networking. Reale participated as a co-author to approximately 80 different international conferences with oral and poster presentations (including 6 presentations by invitation).
Synthetic bibliometric indexes: Prof. A. Reale has H factor = 31 (source: Scopus). He co-authored 125 publications in international journals with peer review, approximately 80 proceedings of international conferences, 1 textbook in Optoelectronics, 3 chapters in books reviews on photovoltaics, 7 international PCT patents (including 1 acquired by Selex SI, and 6 acquired by the consortium Dyepower). Reale received 2 scientific awards, and has co-organized 2 international conferences.
- A. Reale, A. Di Carlo, S. Pescetelli, M. Paciotti, P. Lugli, Optical and electronic properties of semiconductor 2D nanosystems: Self-consistent tight-binding calculations. VLSI-Design, 8, 469, (1998)
- A. Di Carlo, A. Reale, L. Tocca, P. Lugli , Polarization Independent d-strained Semiconductor Optical amplifienrs: a tight-binding study, IEEE J. Quantum Electronics 34, 1730 (1998)
- P. Lugli, A. Reale, A. Di Carlo, Modelling of semiconductor nanosctructured devices within the tight-binding approach, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 11, 6035 (1999)
- A. Reale, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, D. Campi, C. Cacciatore, A. Stano, G. Fornuto, Study of gain compression mechanism in multiple-quantum well Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 35, 1697 (1999).
- Andrea Reale, Aldo Di Carlo, Paolo Lugli , Study of the steady state and dynamical behavior of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, Physica B 272, 513 (1999).
- Aldo Di Carlo , Andrea Reale , Charge Screening of Polarization Fields in Nitride Nanostructures, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b), 228, 553 (2001)
- G.Traetta, A.Di Carlo, A.Reale, P.Lugli, M.Lomascolo, A.Passaseo, R.Cingolani, A.Bonfiglio, M.Berti, E.Napolitani, M.Natali, S.K.Sinha, A.V.Drigo, Charge storage and screening of the internal field in GaN/AlGaN quantum wells, Journal of Crystal Growth, 230, 492, (2001)
- A. Reale, P. Lugli, S. Betti, Format Conversion of Optical Data Using Four Wave Mixing in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 7, 703 (2001)
- A. Reale, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, Gain dynamics in traveling wave Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 7, 293 (2001) DOI: 10.1109/2944.954142
- A. Di Carlo, A. Reale, and P. Lugli, G. Traetta, M. Lomascolo, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, A. Bonfiglio, M. Berti, E. Napolitani, M. Natali, S. K. Sinha, and A. V. Drigo, A. Vinattieri and M. Colocci, Mesoscopic-capacitor effect in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells: Effects on the electronic states, Phys.Rev.B 63, 235305, (2001)
- Andrea Reale, Aldo Di Carlo, Paolo Lugli, Alexej Kavokin, Optical and Electronic Properties of GaN Based Heterostructures: A Self-Consistent Time–Dependent Approach, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 183, 121, (2001)
- D.Alderighi, A.Vinattieri, J.Kudrna, M.Colocci, A.Reale, G.Kokolakis, A.Di Carlo, P.Lugli, F.Semond, N.Grandjean, J.Massies, Recombination Dynamics in GaN/AlGaN Quantum Wells: the Role of Built-in Fields, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), 188, 851 (2001)
- P.Lugli, F.Compagnone, A. Di Carlo, A. Reale, Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices. VLSI-Design, 13, 23, (2001)
- A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo,P. Lugli, Dynamic screening in AlGaN/GaN multi quantum wells, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), 190, 81, (2002)
- A. Reale ,P. Lugli, Modeling of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, Journal of Computational Electronics, 1, 129, (2002)
- A. Bogoni, L. Potì, A. Bizzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Reale, Novel extended SOAs model for applications in very high-speed systems and its experimental validation, IEEE Photonics Technology Letter, 14, 905, (2002)
- A.Vinattieri, D.Alderighi, J.Kudrna, M.Colocci, A.Reale, A.Di Carlo, P.Lugli, F.Semond, N.Grandjean, J.Massies, Resonant and non-resonant dynamics of excitons and free carriers in GaN/AlGaN Quantum Wells.Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), 190, 87 (2002)
- A. Reale,A. Di Carlo,P. Lugli,G.Traetta,M.Lomascolo,A.Passaseo,R. Cingolani,A. Bonfiglio,M. Berti,E. Napolitani,M. Natali,S. K. Sinha,A.V. Drigo,A. Vinattieri and M. Colocci, Static and dynamic screening of the polarization fields in nitride nanostructures: a theoretical and experimental study, Physica b, 314, 35, (2002)
- A. Reale, G. Massari, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, A. Vinattieri, D. Alderighi, M. Colocci, F. Semond, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, Comprehensive description of the dynamical screening of the internal electric fields of AlGaN’GaN quantum wells in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 93, 400 (2003),
Selezionato per la pubblicazione su Virtual Journal of Ultrafast Science, Vol. 2, n.1, Gennaio 2003. http://www.vjultrafast.org. L’elenco degli editori partecipanti all’iniziativa del Virtual Journal of Ultrafast Science comprende tra gli altri American Physical Society, American Institute of Physics, e gli editori delle riviste Science e Nature.
- A.Reale, P.Lugli, Modeling Nonlinear Propagation of Optical Signals in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, Journal of Computational Electronics, 2, 413, (2003)
- A Reale, P. Regoliosi, L.Tocca, P.Lugli, S.Orlanducci, M.L.Terranova and G.Bruni, , Evaluation of the Gauge Factor for membranes assembled by single-walled Carbon nanotubes. Appl. Phys. Lett. Volume 85 No. 14 pp. 2812-2814 (2004)
Selezionato per la pubblicazione su Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, Vol. 10, n.17, Ottobre 2004, http://www.vjnano.org/, L’elenco degli editori partecipanti all’iniziativa del Nanoscale Science & Technology comprende tra gli altri American Physical Society, American Institute of Physics, e gli editori delle riviste Science e Nature.
- S. Betti, C. Bulli, F. Curti, E. Duca, S. Persia, A. Reale, G. M. Tosi-Beleffi, Optical clock recovery from 10-Gb/s NRZ signal. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Volume 42, Issue 6, 435-437 (2004)
- N. Armani, F. Rossi C. Ferrari L. Lazzarini A. Vinattieri M. Colocci A. Reale A. Di Carlo V. Grillo, Polarization field effects on the recombination dynamics in low-In-content InGaN multi-quantum wells, Superlattices and Microstructures, 36 - pages 615 - 624 (2004). doi:10.1016/j.spmi.2004.09.019
- A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, F. Rossi, C. Ferrari, N. Armani, G. Salviati, A. Reale, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, V. Grillo, Recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: role of the piezoelectric field versus carrier localization. Physica status solidi (c), Volume 1, Issue 6, 1397-1402 (2004)
- M. Berliocchi, S. Orlanducci, A. Reale, P. Regoliosi, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, M. L. Terranova, F. Brunetti, G. Bruni and M. Cirillo, Single wall carbon nanotube based aggregates and their electrical characterization. Synthetic Metals, Volume 145, 171-176 (2004)
- M. Lucci, P. Regoliosi, A. Reale, A. Di Carlo, S. Orlanducci, E. Tamburri, M.L. Terranova, P. Lugli, C. Di Natale, A. D’Amico, R. Paolesse, Gas sensing using single wall carbon nanotubes ordered with dielectrophoresis. Sensors and Actuators B v. 111–112, pp. 181–186 (2005)
- A. Reale, A. Di Carlo, A. Vinattieri, M. Colocci, F. Rossi, N. Armani, C. Ferrari, G. Salviati, L. Lazzarini, and V. Grillo, Investigation of the recombination dynamics in low In-contentInGaN MQWs by means of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescenceexcitation, phys. stat. sol. (c) Volume 2, pp. 817–821 (2005)
- S. Betti, F. Curti, E. Duca, S. Monterosso, A. Reale, G. M. Tosi-Beleffi, Optical clock recovery from 10-Gb/s NRZ signal after propagation on 100 km of DS, NZD or SR installed fiber. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters ,Volume 44, Issue 3, Pages: 264-266 (2005)
- Pietro Regoliosi, Aldo Di Carlo, Andrea Reale, Paolo Lugli, Marco Peroni, Claudio Lanzieri and Antonio Cetronio, Thermal resistance measurement of GaAs MESFETs by means of photocurrent spectrum analysis and comparison with simulations. Semicond. Sci. Technol. Vol. 20, pp. 135-139 (2005)
- M. Lucci, A. Reale, A. Di Carlo, S. Orlanducci, E. Tamburri, M.L. Terranova, I. Davoli, C. Di Natale, A. D’Amico, R. Paolesse, Optimization of a NOx gas sensor based on single walled carbon nanotubes. Sensors and Actuators B v. 118, pp. 226–231 (2006)
- Regoliosi, P.; Reale, A.; Di Carlo, A.; Romanini, P.; Peroni, M.; Lanzieri, C.; Angelini, A.; Pirola, M.; Ghione, G.; Experimental validation of GaN HEMTs thermal management by using photocurrent measurements. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Volume 53, Issue 2, Page(s):182 - 188 (2006)
- M L Terranova, M Lucci, , S Orlanducci, E Tamburri, V Sessa, A Reale, A Di Carlo, Carbon nanotubes for gas detection: materials preparation and device assembly. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 225004 (14pp) doi:10.1088/0953-8984/19/22/225004 (2007)
- Brown TM, Di Carlo A, Reale A, Giannini F. Celle Fotovoltaiche Organiche e Ibride. PV TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 1971-6699 (2007)
- S. Penna, A. Reale, R. Pizzoferrato, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, D. Musella, W. P. Gillin, Near-infrared photoluminescence of erbium tris„8-hydroxyquinoline spin-coated thin films induced by low coherence light sources. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 91, 021106 (2007)
- Andrea Reale, Aldo Di Carlo, Marco Peroni, Claudio Lanzieri, and S. Lavagna Thermal Maps of GaAs P-HEMT: A Novel System Based on the Photocurrent Spectral Analysis, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 54, NO. 4, 879 (2007)
- Girolamo Mincuzzi, Luigi Vesce, Andrea Reale, Aldo Di Carlo, Thomas M. Brown, Efficient Sintering of Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Films for Dye Solar Cells via Scanning Laser. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 95, 103312 (2009)
- M. Liberatore L. Burtone, T. M. Brown, A. Reale, A. Di Carlo, F. Decker, S. Caramori, and C. A. Bignozzi, On the effect of Al2O3 blocking layer on the performance of dye solar cells with cobalt based electrolytes. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 94, 173113 doi: 10.1063/1.3126051 (2009)
- G. Latessa, F. Brunetti, A. Reale, G. Saggio, A. Di Carlo, Piezoresistive behaviour of flexible PEDOT:PSS based sensors. Sensors and Actuators B 139 304–309 doi:10.1016/j.snb.2009.03.063 (2009)
- Lorenzo Dominici, Francesco Michelotti, Thomas M. Brown, Andrea Reale, and Aldo Di Carlo, Plasmon polaritons in the near infrared on fluorine doped tin oxide films. Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 12, - pages 10155-10167 (2009)
- M. LIBERATORE, F. DECKER, L. BURTONE, V. ZARDETTO, BROWN T, REALE A, A. DI CARLO. Using EIS for diagnosis of Dye Solar Cell Performance. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ELECTROCHEMISTRY, ISSN: 0021-891X, doi: 10.1007/s10800-009-9806-5 (2009)
- D. GENTILINI, D. D’ERCOLE, A. GAGLIARDI, A. BRUNETTI, REALE A, T. BROWN AND A. DI CARLO Analysis and simulation of incident photon to current efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells. SUPERLATTICES AND MICROSTRUCTURES, vol. 47, p. 192-196, ISSN: 0749-6036, doi: 10.1016/j.spmi.2009.10.005 (2009)
- Lorenzo Dominici, Luigi Vesce, Daniele Colonna, Francesco Michelotti, Thomas M. Brown, Andrea Reale, and Aldo Di Carlo, Angular and prism coupling refractive enhancement in dye solar cells. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 96, 103302 (2010)
- Gloria Zanotti, Nicola Angelini, Sara Notarantonio, Anna Maria Paoletti, Giovanna Pennesi, Gentilina Rossi, Angelo Lembo, Daniele Colonna, Aldo Di Carlo, Reale A, Thomas M Brown, Giuseppe Calogero. Bridged Phthalocyanine Systems for Sensitization of Nanocrystalline TiO 2 Films. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHOTOENERGY, ISSN: 1110-662X, doi: 10.1155/2010/136807 (2010)
- Toschi F, Orlanducci S, Tamburri E, Guglielmotti V, Terranova M L, Di Carlo A, Reale A, Falessi C., Carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane systems for thermal management of miniaturized electronic components. JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 10, p. 8336-8340, ISSN: 1533-4880, doi: 10.1166/jnn.2010.2663 (2010)
- Alessio Gagliardi, Simone Mastroianni, Desiree Gentilini, Fabrizio Giordano, Andrea Reale, Thomas M. Brown, and Aldo Di Carlo, Multiscale Modeling of Dye Solar Cells and Comparison With Experimental Data. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 16, NO. 6, 1611, DOI: 10.1109/JSTQE.2010.2047097 (2010)
- Luigi Vesce, Riccardo Riccitelli, Giuseppe Soscia, Thomas M. Brown,Aldo Di Carlo, Andrea Reale, Optimization of nanostructured titaniaphotoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: Study and experimentation of TiCl4 . Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 356 1958–1961 doi:10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2010.05.070 (2010)
- D. Colonna, L. Dominici , D. D'Ercole , A. Brunetti , F. Michelotti , T.M. Brown, A. Reale , A. Di Carlo, Photocurrent enhancement of dye solar cells by efficient light management. Superlattice and Microstructures, Vol. 47 - pages 197-201 (2010)
- Enrico Leonardi, Stefano Penna, Thomas M. Brown, Aldo Di Carlo, Andrea Reale, Stability of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells under Light Soaking Test. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 356 2049–2052 doi:10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2010.05.072 (2010)
- A. Petrocco ,M. Liberatore, A. Di Carlo, A. Reale, T.M. Brown, F. Decker, Thermal Activation Of Mass Transport And Charge Transfer At Pt In The I3-/I- Electrolyte Of A Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., DOI:10.1039/C002840A (2010)
- G. SUSANNA, L. SALAMANDRA, A. DI CARLO, T.M. BROWN, F. BRUNETTI, REALE A. Airbrush Spray Coating of Polymer Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells. SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, ISSN: 0927-0248, doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2011.01.047 (2011)
- Daniele D’Ercole, Lorenzo Dominici, Thomas M Brown, Francesco Michelotti, Reale A, Aldo Di Carlo. Angular response of dye solar cells to solar and spectrally resolved light . APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 99, p. 213301, ISSN: 0003-6951, doi: 10.1063/1.3663973 (2011)
- S. PREZIOSO, L. OTTAVIANO, F. BISTI, M. DONARELLI, S. SANTUCCI, L. PALLADINO, S. PENNA, REALE A, Infrared photoluminescence of erbium-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) in a distributed feedback cavity. JOURNAL OF LUMINESCENCE, ISSN: 0022-2313, doi: 10.1016/j.jlumin.2010.11.017 (2011)
- Girolamo Mincuzzi, Luigi Vesce, Massimiliano Liberatore, Reale A, Aldo Di Carlo, Thomas M Brown. Laser-Sintered TiO2 Films for Dye Solar Cell Fabrication: An Electrical, Morphological, and Electron Lifetime Investigation. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, vol. 58, p. 3179-3188, ISSN: 0018-9383, doi: 10.1109/TED.2011.2160643 (2011)
- F Giordano, E Petrolati, T M Brown, Reale A, A Di Carlo, Series-Connection Designs for Dye Solar Cell Modules. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, vol. 58, p. 2759-2764, ISSN: 0018-9383, doi: 10.1109/TED.2011.2158216 (2011)
- Zardetto, V., Brown, T. M., Reale, A. and Di Carlo, A., Substrates for flexible electronics: A practical investigation on the electrical, film flexibility, optical, temperature, and solvent resistance properties. J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys., 49: 638–648. doi: 10.1002/polb.22227 (2011)
- Gloria Zanotti, Nicola Angelini, Anna Maria Paoletti, Giovanna Pennesi, Gentilina Rossi, Aldo Amore Bonapasta, Giuseppe Mattioli, Aldo Di Carlo, Thomas M Brown, Angelo Lembo, Reale A. Synthesis of a novel unsymmetrical Zn (II) phthalocyanine bearing a phenyl ethynyl moiety as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells. DALTON TRANSACTIONS, vol. 40, p. 38-40, ISSN: 1477-9226, doi: 10.1039/C0DT01292K (2011)
- LUIGI SALAMANDRA, GIANPAOLO SUSANNA, STEFANO PENNA, FRANCESCA BRUNETTI, REALE A, Time-resolved response of polymer bulk-heterojunction photo-detectors. IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, ISSN: 1041-1135 (2011), DOI: 10.1109/LPT.2011.2124451
- L. La Notte, L. Salamandra, A. Zampetti, F. Brunetti, T. Brown, A. Di Carlo, Reale A. Airbrush spray coating of amorphous titanium dioxide for inverted polymer solar cells. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHOTOENERGY, ISSN: 1110-662X, doi: 10.1155/2012/897595 (2012)
- Gentilini D, Gagliardi A, Auf der Maur M, Vesce L, D’Ercole D, Brown T, Reale A, Di Carlo A (2012). Correlation between Cell Performance and Physical Transport Parameters in Dye Solar Cells. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. C, NANOMATERIALS AND INTERFACES, vol. 116, p. 1151-1157, ISSN: 1932-7447, doi: 10.1021/jp205697t
- Daniele Colonna, Vincenzo Capogna, Angelo Lembo, Thomas M. Brown, Reale A, Aldo Di Carlo. Efficient Cosensitization Strategy for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells . APPLIED PHYSICS EXPRESS, vol. 5, ISSN: 1882-0778, doi: 10.1143/APEX.5.022303 (2012)
- Simone Mastroianni, Angelo Lembo, Thomas M. Brown, Reale A, Aldo Di Carlo. Electrochemistry in Reverse Biased Dye Solar Cells and Dye/Electrolyte Degradation Mechanisms. CHEMPHYSCHEM, vol. 13, p. 2964-2975, ISSN: 1439-4235, doi: 10.1002/cphc.201200229 (2012)
- A. Quatela, A. Agresti, S. Mastroianni, S. Pescetelli, T.M. Brown, Reale A, A. Di Carlo. Fabrication and reliability of dye solar cells: A resonance Raman scattering study. MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY, vol. 52, p. 2487-2489, ISSN: 0026-2714, doi: 10.1016/j.microrel.2012.06.150 (2012)
- G. Mincuzzi, M. Schulz-Ruhtenberg, L. Vesce, Reale A, Di Carlo A, Gillner A, T. M. Brown. Laser processing of TiO2 films for dye solar cells: a thermal, sintering, throughput and embodied energy investigation. PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS, ISSN: 1062-7995, doi: 10.1002/pip.2261 (2014)
- Simone Mastroianni, Alessandro Lanuti, Stefano Penna, Reale A, Thomas M Brown, Aldo Di Carlo, Franco Decker. Physical and Electrochemical Analysis of an Indoor–Outdoor Ageing Test of Large‐Area Dye Solar Cell Devices. CHEMPHYSCHEM, vol. 13, p. 2925-2936, ISSN: 1439-4235, doi: 10.1002/cphc.201200110 (2012)
- F. Giordano, A. Guidobaldi, E. Petrolati, L. Vesce, R. Riccitelli, Reale A, T.M. Brown, A. Di Carlo. Realization of high performance large area Z-series-interconnected opaque dye solar cell modules. PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS, ISSN: 1062-7995, doi: 10.1002/pip.2228 (2013)
- D. Bari, A.Cester, N. Wrachien, L.Ciammaruchi, T.M.Brown, Reale A, A.Di Carlo, G. Meneghesso. Reliability Study of Ruthenium-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs) . IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, vol. 2, p. 27-34, ISSN: 2156-3381, doi: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2011.2180702 (2012)
- D. Bari, N. Wrachien, R. Tagliaferro, T.M. Brown, Reale A, A. Di Carlo, G. Meneghesso, A. Cester. Reliability study of dye-sensitized solar cells by means of solar simulator and white LED. MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY, vol. 52, p. 2495-2499, ISSN: 0026-2714, doi: 10.1016/j.microrel.2012.06.061 (2012)
- Mastroianni S, Lanuti A, Brown TM, Argazzi R, Caramori S, Reale A, Di Carlo A. Reverse bias degradation in dye solar cells. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 101, ISSN: 0003-6951, doi: 10.1063/1.4754116 (2012)
- L. Cinà, A. Di Carlo, Reale A. Time resolved temperature profiles of high power HEMTs by photocurrent spectral analysis. MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY, vol. 52, p. 2077-2080, ISSN: 0026-2714, doi: 10.1016/j.microrel.2012.06.060 (2012)
- Laura Ciammaruchi, Stefano Penna, Reale A, Thomas M Brown, Aldo Di Carlo. Acceleration factor for ageing measurement of dye solar cells. MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY, vol. 53, p. 279-281, ISSN: 0026-2714, doi: 10.1016/j.microrel.2012.08.016 (2013)
- Lorenzo Dominici, Daniele D’Ercole, Thomas M. Brown, Francesco Michelotti, Reale A, Aldo Di Carlo. Angular refractive path for optical enhancement and evaluation of dye solar cells. SOLAR ENERGY, vol. 98 , p. 553-560, ISSN: 0038-092X, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2013.10.025 (2013)
- F. De Rossi, L. Di Gaspare, Reale A, A. Di Carlo, T. M. Brown. Blending CoS and Pt for amelioration of electrodeposited transparent counter-electrodes and the efficiency of back-illuminated dye solar cells . JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY. A, vol. 1, p. 12941-12947 , ISSN: 2050-7488, doi: 10.1039/c3ta13076b (2013)
- F Matteocci, G Mincuzzi, F Giordano, A Capasso, E Artuso, C Barolo, G Viscardi, TM Brown, Reale A, A Di Carlo. Blocking layer optimisation of poly (3-hexylthiopene) based Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells. ORGANIC ELECTRONICS, vol. 14, p. 1882-1890, ISSN: 1566-1199, doi: 10.1016/j.orgel.2013.03.037 (2013)
- Cristina Cornaro, Simona Bartocci, Davide Musella, Cecilia Strati, Alessandro Lanuti, Simone Mastroianni, Stefano Penna, Andrea Guidobaldi, Fabrizio Giordano, Eleonora Petrolati, Thomas M. Brown, Reale Andrea, Aldo Di Carlo. Comparative analysis of the outdoor performance of a dye solar cell mini-panel for building integrated photovoltaics applications. PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS, ISSN: 1062-7995, doi: 10.1002/pip.2426 (2013)
- D Bari, N Wrachien, R Tagliaferro, TM Brown, Reale A, A Di Carlo, G Meneghesso, A Cester. Comparison between positive and negative constant current stress on dye-sensitized solar cells. MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY, vol. 53, p. 1804-1808, ISSN: 0026-2714, doi: 10.1016/j.microrel.2013.07.093 (2013)
- M. Giustini, D. Angelone, M. Parente, D. Dini, F. Decker, A. Lanuti, Reale A, T.M. Brown, A. di Carlo. Emission spectra and transient photovoltage in dye-sensitized solar cells under stress tests. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ELECTROCHEMISTRY, vol. 43, p. 209-215, ISSN: 0021-891X, doi: 10.1007/s10800-012-0484-3 (2013)
- Luca La Notte, Daniel Mineo, Giuseppina Polino, Gianpaolo Susanna, Francesca Brunetti, Thomas M. Brown, Aldo Di Carlo, Reale Andrea. Fabrication of Fully-Spray-Processed Organic Photovoltaic Modules by using an Automated Process in Air. ENERGY TECHNOLOGY, vol. 1, ISSN: 2194-4288, doi: 10.1002/ente.201300107 (2013)
- Luigi Vesce, Riccardo Riccitelli, Girolamo Mincuzzi, Alessio Orabona, Giuseppe Soscia, Thomas M. Brown, Aldo Di Carlo, Reale Andrea. Fabrication of Spacer and Catalytic Layers in Monolithic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, ISSN: 2156-3381, doi: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2013.2262374 (2013)
- Antonio Cardone, Carmela Martinelli, Maria Losurdo, Elena Dilonardo, Giovanni Bruno, Guido Scavia, Silvia Destri, Pinalysa Cosma, Luigi Salamandra, Andrea Reale, Aldo Di Carlo, Aranzazu Aguirre, Begoña Milián-Medina, Johannes Gierschner and Gianluca M. Farinola. Fluoro-functionalization of vinylene units in a polyarylenevinylene for polymer solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 715-727, DOI: 10.1039/C2TA00177B (2013)
- Valerio Zardetto, Gabriele De Angelis, Luigi Vesce, Valentina Caratto, Claudia Mazzuca, Jacek Gasiorowski, Reale A, Aldo Di Carlo, Thomas M. Brown (2013). Formulations and processing of nanocrystalline TiO2 films for the different requirements of plastic, metal and glass dye solar cell applications. NANOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 24 , pag. 255401, ISSN: 1361-6528, doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/24/25/255401
- Valerio Zardetto; Francesco Di Giacomo; Diana Garcia-Alonso; Wytze Keuning; Adriana Creatore; Claudia Mazzucca; Reale Andrea; Aldo Di Carlo; Thomas M. Brown. Fully Plastic Dye Solar Cell Devices by Low-Temperature UV-Irradiation of both the Mesoporous TiO2 Photo- and Platinized Counter-Electrodes. Advanced Energy Materials, doi: 10.1002/aenm.201300101 (2013)
- Roberto Tagliaferro, Desirée Gentilini, Simone Mastroianni, Andrea Zampetti, Alessio Gagliardi, Thomas M. Brown, Andrea Reale and Aldo Di Carlo. Integrated tandem dye solar cells. RSC Adv., Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C3RA43380C2013 (2013)
- Lorenzo Dominici, Vittoria Roiati, Francesco Michelotti, Thomas M. Brown, Reale A, Aldo Di Carlo. Interferometric study of microchamber in large area dye solar cells. SOLAR ENERGY, ISSN: 0038-092X, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2013.05.013 (2013)
- Roberto Tagliaferro, Daniele Colonna, Thomas M Brown, Reale A, Aldo Di Carlo. Interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells. OPTICS EXPRESS, vol. 21, p. 3235-3242, ISSN: 1094-4087, doi: 10.1364/OE.21.003235 (2013)
- Andrea Zampetti, Francesca De Rossi, Francesca Brunetti, Reale A, Aldo Di Carlo, Thomas M. Brown (2014). Electrodeposited cobalt sulfide hole collecting layer for polymer solar cells. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, vol. 105, ISSN: 0003-6951, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4892845
- Reale A, Lucio Cinà, Ambra Malatesta, Riccardo De Marco, Thomas M. Brown, Aldo Di Carlo (2014). Estimation of Energy Production of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Modules for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Applications. ENERGY TECHNOLOGY, vol. 2, p. 531-541, ISSN: 2194-4296, doi: 10.1002/ente.201402005
- Luca La Notte, Giuseppina Polino, Pierpaolo Verzola, Luigi Salamandra, Francesca Brunetti, Thomas M. Brown, Aldo Di Carlo, Reale Andrea. Influence of encapsulation materials on the optical properties and conversion efficiency of heat-sealed flexible polymer solar cells. SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0257-8972, doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2013.12.058 (2014), La Notte Luca, Polino Giuseppina, Verzola Pierpaolo, Salamandra Luigi, Brunetti Francesca, Brown Thomas M., Di Carlo Aldo, Reale A (2014). Corrigendum to Influence of encapsulation materials on the optical properties and conversion efficiency of heat-sealed flexible polymer solar cells (vol 255, pg 69, 2014). SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, vol. 262, p. 216, ISSN: 0257-8972, doi: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.12.006
- A. Agresti, S. Pescetelli, A. Quatela, S. Mastroianni, T. M. Brown, Reale A, C. A. Bignozzi, S. Caramori, A. Di Carlo. Micro-Raman analysis of reverse bias stressed dye-sensitized solar cells. RSC ADVANCES, vol. 4, p. 12366-12375, ISSN: 2046-2069, doi: 10.1039/C3RA47797E (2014)
- V Zardetto, G Mincuzzi, F De Rossi, F Di Giacomo, Reale A, A Di Carlo, TM Brown. Outdoor and diurnal performance of large conformal flexible metal/plastic dye solar cells. APPLIED ENERGY, vol. 113, p. 1155-1161, ISSN: 0306-2619, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.08.056 (2014)
- Stefano Razza, Francesco Di Giacomo, Fabio Matteocci, Lucio Cinà, Alessandro Lorenzo Palma, Simone Casaluci, Petra Cameron, Alessandra D'Epifanio, Silvia Licoccia, Reale A, Thomas M. Brown, Aldo Di Carlo (2014). Perovskite solar cells and large area modules (100 cm2) based on an air flow-assisted PbI2 blade coating deposition process. JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, vol. 277, p. 286-291, ISSN: 0378-7753, doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.12.008
- T. M. Brown, F. De Rossi, F. Di Giacomo, G. Mincuzzi, V. Zardetto, Reale A, A. Di Carlo (2014). Progress in flexible dye solar cell materials, processes and devices. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, vol. 2, p. 10788-10817, ISSN: 0959-9428, doi: 10.1039/c4ta00902a
- F Matteocci, S Casaluci, S Razza, A Guidobaldi, TM Brown, Reale A, A Di Carlo. Solid state dye solar cell modules. JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, vol. 246, p. 361-364, ISSN: 0378-7753, doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.07.104 (2014)
- Luca La Notte, Giuseppina Polino, Claudio Ciceroni, Francesca Brunetti, Thomas M. Brown, Aldo Di Carlo, Reale A (2014). Spray-Coated Polymer Solar Cells based on Low-Band-Gap Donors Processed with ortho-Xylene. ENERGY TECHNOLOGY, vol. 2, p. 786-791, ISSN: 2194-4296, doi: 10.1002/ente.201402059
- Girolamo Mincuzzi, Luigi Vesce, Malte Schulz-Ruthenberg, Elmar Gehlen, Reale A, Aldo Di Carlo, Thomas M. Brown (2014). Taking Temperature Processing Out of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Fabrication: Fully Laser-Manufactured Devices. ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN: 1614-6832, doi: 10.1002/aenm.201400421
- De Rossi, F., Brown, T.M., Reale, A., Di Carlo, A. Large-area electrodeposition of counterelectrodes utilizing the same integrated conductive grid for fabrication of parallel flexible dye solar cell modules (2014) IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 4 (6), art. no. 6918364, pp. 1552-1559. DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2354255
- Bisti, F., Anemone, G., Donarelli, M., Penna, S., Reale, A., Ottaviano, L. Tetrakis erbium quinolinate complexes, electronic structure investigation (2014) Organic Electronics: physics, materials, applications, 15 (8), pp. 1810-1814. DOI: 10.1016/j.orgel.2014.05.012
- Casaluci, S., Cinà, L., Pockett, A., Kubiak, P.S., Niemann, R.G., Reale, A., Di Carlo, A., Cameron, P.J., A simple approach for the fabrication of perovskite solar cells in air, (2015) Journal of Power Sources, 297, pp. 504-510. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.08.010
- Reale, A., La Notte, L., Salamandra, L., Polino, G., Susanna, G., Brown, T. M., Brunetti, F. and Di Carlo, A. (2015), Spray Coating for Polymer Solar Cells: An Up-to-Date Overview. Energy Technology, 3: 385–406. doi: 10.1002/ente.201402180
- Susanna G., Salamandra L., Ciceroni C., Mura F., Brown T. M., Reale A, Rossi M., Di Carlo A., Brunetti F. (2015). 8.7% Power conversion efficiency polymer solar cell realized with non-chlorinated solvents. SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 134, p. 194-198, ISSN: 0927-0248, doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2014.11.042
- Zampetti Andrea, Fallahpour Amir Hossein, Dianetti Martina, Salamandra Luigi, Santoni Francesco, Gagliardi Alessio, Auf der Maur Matthias, Brunetti Francesca, Reale A, Brown Thomas M., Di Carlo Aldo (2015). Influence of the Interface Material Layers and Semiconductor Energetic Disorder on the Open Circuit Voltage in Polymer Solar Cells. JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE. PART B, POLYMER PHYSICS, vol. 53, p. 690-699, ISSN: 1099-0488, doi: 10.1002/polb.23685
- Polino Giuseppina, Casaluci Simone, Dianetti Martina, Dell'Elce Simone, Liscio Andrea, Mirruzzo Valentina, Cardone Giorgio, Susanna Gianpaolo, Salamandra Luigi, Brown Thomas M., Reale A, Di Carlo Aldo, Brunetti Francesca (2015). Inverted Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells using Polyethylenimine-Ethoxylated Processed from a Fully Aqueous Dispersion as Electron-Transport Layer. ENERGY TECHNOLOGY, vol. 3, p. 1152-1158, ISSN: 2194-4296, doi: 10.1002/ente.201500154
- Jeffrey G Tait, Luca La Notte, Davit Melkonyan, Robert Gehlhaar, David Cheyns, Reale A, Paul Heremans (2016). Electrical properties of patterned photoactive layers in organic photovoltaic modules. SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, vol. 144, p. 493-499, ISSN: 0927-0248, doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.09.056
- Cinà, L., Taheri, B., Reale, A., Di Carlo, A. Diffusion length mapping for dye-sensitized solar cells, Energies, 9 (9), 686, 2016, doi:10.3390/en9090686
- Zampetti, A., Salamandra, L., Brunetti, F., Reale A., Di Carlo, A., Brown, T.M., Electron-collecting oxide layers in inverted polymer solar cells via oxidation of thermally evaporated titanium, Semiconductor Science and Technology, 31 (10), 105003, 2016, doi: 10.1088/0268-1242/31/10/105003
- S Castro-Hermosa, SK Yadav, L Vesce, A Guidobaldi, A Reale, A Di Carlo, TM Brown, Stability issues pertaining large area perovskite and dye-sensitized solar cells and modules, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 50 (3), 033001, 2016, doi: 10.1088/1361-6463/50/3/033001
- Matteocci, F., Cinà, L., Di Giacomo, F., Razza, S., Palma, A.L., Guidobaldi, A., D'Epifanio, A., Licoccia, S., Brown, T.M., Reale, A., Di Carlo, A. High efficiency photovoltaic module based on mesoscopic organometal halide perovskite Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 24 (4), pp. 436-445 (2016) doi:
- L La Notte, E Villari, AL Palma, A Sacchetti, MM Giangregorio, G Bruno, A Di Carlo, G Valerio Bianco, A Reale, Laser-patterned functionalized CVD-graphene as highly transparent conductive electrodes for polymer solar cells, Nanoscale 9 (1), 62-69, 2017, DOI: 10.1039/C6NR06156G
- Luca La Notte, Giuseppe Valerio Bianco, Alessandro Lorenzo Palma, Aldo Di Carlo, Giovanni Bruno, Andrea Reale, Sprayed organic photovoltaic cells and mini-modules based on chemical vapor deposited graphene as transparent conductive electrode, Carbon, 2017, ISSN 0008-6223, doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2017.08.001
- Salamandra, L., La Notte, L., Paronesso, G., Susanna, G., Cinà, L., Polino, G., Mattiello, L., Catini, A., Di Natale, C., Martinelli, E., Di Carlo, A., Brunetti, F., Brown, T. M. and Reale, A. (2017), On the Role of PTB7-Th:PCBM Blend Concentration in ortho-Xylene on Polymer Solar-Cell Performance. Energy Technol.. 2017, doi:10.1002/ente.201700237
- L. La Notte, P. Cataldi, L. Ceseracciu, I. S Bayer, A. Athanassiou, S. Marras, E. Villari, F. Brunetti, A. Reale, Fully-sprayed flexible polymer solar cells with a cellulose-graphene electrode, Materials Today Energy, Volume 7, Pages 105-112, doi: 10.1016/j.mtener.2017.12.010
- L. Cinà, A. Di Carlo, Reale A (2018). Thermal Model of High-Power Amplifiers Based on Time-Dependent Temperature Profiles Measured by Photoconductance. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, vol. 65, p. 1739-1744, ISSN: 0018-9383, doi: 10.1109/TED.2018.2814921
- Pietro Cataldi, José A. Heredia‐Guerrero, Susana Guzman‐Puyol, Luca Ceseracciu, Luca La Notte, Andrea Reale, Jun Ren, Yijie Zhang, Lei Liu, Mario Miscuglio, Patrizia Savi, Simonluca Piazza, Marti Duocastella, Giovanni Perotto, Athanassia Athanassiou, Ilker S. Bayer, Sustainable Electronics Based on Crop Plant Extracts and Graphene: A “Bioadvantaged” Approach, Adv. Sustainable Syst. 2018, 1800069, doi: 10.1002/adsu.201800069
- Luigi Salamandra, Narges Yaghoobi Nia, Melania Di Natali, Claudio Fazolo, Silvia Maiello, Luca La Notte, Gianpaolo Susanna, Angelo Pizzoleo, Fabio Matteocci, Lucio Cinà, Leonardo Mattiello, Francesca Brunetti, Aldo Di Carlo, Andrea Reale, Perovskite Photo-Detectors (PVSK-PDs) for Visible Light Communication, Organic Electronics, 2019, ISSN 1566-1199, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2019.03.008.
- Luigi Salamandra, Luca La Notte, Claudio Fazolo, Melania Di Natali, Stefano Penna, Leonardo Mattiello, Lucio Cinà, Roberto Del Duca, Andrea Reale, A comparative study of organic photodetectors based on P3HT and PTB7 polymers for Visible Light Communication, Organic Electronics, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgel.2020.105666
- Saeed Mardi, Marialilia Pea, Andrea Notargiacomo, Narges Yaghoobi Nia, Aldo Di Carlo and Andrea Reale, The Molecular Weight Dependence of Thermoelectric Properties of Poly (3-Hexylthiophene), Materials 2020, 13, 1404; doi:10.3390/ma13061404
- Saeed Mardi, Marco Risi Ambrogioni and Andrea Reale, Developing printable thermoelectric materials based on graphene nanoplatelet/ethyl cellulose nanocomposites, 2020 Mater. Res. Express https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ababc0
- Luca La Notte, Lorena Giordano, Emanuele Calabrò, Roberto Bedini, Giuseppe Colla, Giovanni Puglisi, Andrea Reale, Hybrid and organic photovoltaics for greenhouse applications, Applied Energy, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115582
- Saeed Mardi, Khabib Yusupov, Patricia M. Martinez, Anvar Zakhidov, Alberto Vomiero, Andrea Reale, Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)through the Incorporation of Aligned Carbon Nanotube Forest and Chemical Treatments, American Chemical Society – ACS Omega, DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c02663
- Emanuele Calabrò, Fabio Matteocci, Barbara Paci, Lucio Cina, Luigi Vesce, Jessica Barichello, Amanda Generosi, Andrea Reale, Aldo Di Carlo, Easy Strategy to Enhance Thermal Stability of Planar PSCs by Perovskite Defect Passivation and Low-Temperature Carbon-Based Electrode, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 29, 32536–32547, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c05878
- R. Giofré, P. Colantonio, M. Auf der Maur and A. Reale, "A Suitable Approach to Assess Thermal Properties of GaN Power Bars," 2020 15th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC), 2021, pp. 225-228, doi: 10.1109/EuMIC48047.2021.00068.
- Bruno Lorenzi, Paolo Mariani, Andrea Reale, Aldo Di Carlo, Gang Chen, Dario Narducci, “Practical development of efficient thermoelectric – Photovoltaic hybrid systems based on wide-gap solar cells”, Applied Energy, 300, 117343 (2021), ISSN 0306-2619, doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117343.
- Saeed Mardi, Dan Zhao, Nara Kim, Ioannis Petsagkourakis, Klas Tybrandt, Andrea Reale, and Xavier Crispin, “The Interfacial Effect on the Open Circuit Voltage of Ionic Thermoelectric Devices with Conducting Polymer Electrodes”, Adv. Electron. Mater. 2021, 2100506, doi: 10.1002/aelm.202100506
- Jessica Barichello, Luigi Vesce, Paolo Mariani, Enrico Leonardi , Roberto Braglia, Aldo Di Carlo, Antonella Canini and Andrea Reale, “Stable Semi-Transparent Dye-Sensitized Solar Modules and Panels for Greenhouse Application”, Energies, 2021, 14, 6393. doi: 10.3390/en14196393
- Barichello, J.; Mariani, P.; Matteocci, F.; Vesce, L.; Reale, A.; Di Carlo, A.; Lanza, M.; Di Marco, G.; Polizzi, S.; Calogero, G. “The Golden Fig: A Plasmonic Effect Study of Organic-Based Solar Cells.” Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 267. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020267
- Saeed Mardi, Pietro Cataldi, Athanassia Athanassiou, and Andrea Reale, “3D cellulose fiber networks modified by PEDOT:PSS/graphene nanoplatelets for thermoelectric applications”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 120, 033102 (2022); https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0075918